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Africa's cities : opening doors to the World : Cidades Africanas : abrindo as portas ao mundo - visão geral (Portugués)

Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing rapid population growth. Yet their economic growth has not kept pace. Why? One factor might be low capital investment, due in part to Africa’s relative poverty: Other regions have reached similar stages of urbanization at higher per capita GDP. This study, however, identifies a deeper reason: African cities are closed to the world. Compared with other developing cities, cities in Africa produce few goods and services for trade on regional and international markets. To grow economically as they are growing in size, Africa’s cities must open their doors to the world. They need to specialize in manufacturing, along with other regionally and globally tradable goods and services. And to attract global investment in tradables production, cities must develop scale economies, which are associated with successful urban economic development in other regions. Such scale economies can arise in Africa, and they will—if city and country leaders make concerted efforts to bring agglomeration effects to urban areas. Today, potential urban investors and entrepreneurs look at Africa and see crowded, disconnected, and costly cities. Such cities inspire low expectations for the scale of urban production and for returns on invested capital. How can these cities become economically dense—not merely crowded? How can they acquire efficient connections? And how can they draw firms and skilled workers with a more affordable, livable urban environment? From a policy standpoint, the answer must be to address the structural problems affecting African cities. Foremost among these problems are institutional and regulatory constraints that misallocate land and labor, fragment physical development, and limit productivity. As long as African cities lack functioning land markets and regulations and early, coordinated infrastructure investments, they will remain local cities: closed to regional and global markets, trapped into producing only locally traded goods and services, and limited in their economic growth.

Información

  • Autor

    Lall,Somik V., Henderson,John Vernon, Venables,Anthony J.

  • Fecha del documento

    2017/01/01

  • Tipo de documento

    Publicación

  • Número del informe

    112756

  • Volumen

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    2

  • País

    África,

  • Región

    África,

  • Fecha de divulgación

    2017/02/13

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Nom. del doc.

    Cidades Africanas : abrindo as portas ao mundo - visão geral

  • Palabras clave

    access to basic service;consumer base;central business district;lack of capital;cost of living;land use regulation;urban agglomeration economy;public service provision;access to job;returns to scale;efficient labor market;lack of road;transfer of skill;urban road infrastructure;business investment decision;rapid population growth;human capital endowment;access to land;urban land market;informal land market;expansion of export;investments in infrastructure;land use pattern;rapid urban growth;urban land use;per capita investment;concentration of people;natural resource sector;cost of vehicle;access to finance;privileges and immunity;urban economy;tradable sector;Capital Investments;scale economy;nontradable goods;urban development;Urban Planning;high wage;paved road;nominal wage;urban population;property right;path dependence;household budget;expected return;Population Density;trading partner;living cost;public good;global market;price index;agglomeration benefit;city population;average worker;dutch disease;urban living;city dweller;urban worker;urban household;investment need;vicious cycle;urban market;formal sector;physical form;potential investor;price level;Transport Systems;market dynamic;replacement value;informal settlement;transport cost;input cost;smaller share;Land Ownership;transport service;spatial density;urban structure;transaction cost;rural transportation infrastructure;retail trade;regulatory incentive;fitted value;increased investment;Property Law;basic infrastructure;worker productivity;Land tenure;residential area;Infrastructure Finance;land right;Zoning Ordinance;colonial regime;building code;informal arrangement;global investor;market constraint;land transaction;development path;tax revenue;residential structures;economic efficiency;land rent;bottom quintile;high-density apartment;urban challenge;policy reasons;human capacity;political risk;passenger capacity;land access;fiscal obligation;private investment;social diversity;vehicle price;institutional failure;urban resident;urban housing;legal dispute;Political Economy;complementary investment;inefficient regulation;household income;high share;food price;social return;political decision;resource constraint;land developer;municipal government;city zone;business decision;housing rent;asian countries;real wage;Public Infrastructure;living condition;finance strategy;private actor;high resolution;rural ones;city government;urban productivity;long commute;urban roads;retail industry;firm size;job market;environment agency;city service;satellite image;cognitive skill;downtown area;urban people;building stock;infrastructure cost;city study;industrial structure;residential development;global city;green space;production cost;city plan;property market;income economy;urbanizing countries;constant dollar;neighborhood information;urban core;urbanization level;income transfer;Business Regulation;cost efficiency;Job Matching;global trade;informal housing;agricultural productivity;commodity price;path dependency;Resource export;adequate infrastructure;financial intermediation;search cost;knowledge spillover;supply increase;rapid urbanization;productivity gain;productivity benefit;zoning regulation;increase productivity;industrial sector;business service;travel agency;small cities;social work;local market;sector activity;informal investment;resource rent;walking account;relative poverty;international market;policy standpoint;regulatory constraint;international competitiveness;urban investor;urban production;traded goods;industrial production;global demand;diminishing return;agglomeration effect;urban concentration;job opportunities;job opportunity;commercial purpose;Public Goods;shipping cost;

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